Argumentation Mining from Judicial Decisions: The Attribution Problem and the Need for Legal Discourse Models, co-authored with Parisa Bagheri and Andrew J. Lauria, peer-reviewed and accepted for presentation at the 2015 Workshop on Automated Detection, Extraction and Analysis of Semantic Information in Legal Texts (ASAIL 2015), held in conjunction with the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence & Law (ICAIL 2015), in San Diego, June 8-12, 2015. Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Introducing LUIMA: An Experiment in Legal Conceptual Retrieval of Vaccine Injury Decisions using a UIMA Type System and Tools, co-authored with Matthias Grabmair, Kevin D. Ashley, Ran Chen, Preethi Sureshkumar, Chen Wang, and Eric Nyberg, in the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL 2015), June 8-12, 2015, pp. 69-78 (ACM: New York, 2015).
Annotating Patterns of Reasoning about Medical Theories of Causation in Vaccine Cases: Toward a Type System for Arguments, in the Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining, at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, June 26, 2014, with Karina Vazirova and Cass Sanford. Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Representing the use of rule-based presumptions in legal decision documents, Law, Probability and Risk published online May 26, 2014 (print version forthcoming, 2014). Prepublication copy available for download in .pdf format.
From Information Retrieval (IR) to Argument Retrieval (AR) for Legal Cases: Report on a Baseline Study, in the Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2013), held in Bologna, Italy, on December 11-13, 2013, with Kevin D. Ashley. Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Law Schools as Knowledge Centers in the Digital Age, 88 Chicago-Kent Law Review 879-916 (2013), with A. J. Durwin, Philip H. Hwang, Keith Langlais and Mycroft Boyd. (Symposium Issue on "Justice, Lawyering and Legal Education in the Digital Age") Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
A process approach to inferences of causation: empirical research from vaccine cases in the USA, 12 Law, Probability and Risk, 189-205 (2013) (first published online May 22, 2013), with Chan Hee Park, Philip H. Hwang, Arthur John, Evgeny I. Krasnov and Keith Langlais. Prepublication copy available for download in .pdf format.
Toward Constructing Evidence-Based Legal Arguments Using Legal Decision Documents and Machine Learning, in the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL 2013), June 10-14, 2013, pp. 176-80 (ACM: New York, 2013), with Kevin D. Ashley. Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
A framework for the extraction and modeling of fact-finding reasoning from legal decisions: lessons from the Vaccine/Injury Project Corpus, 19 Artificial Intelligence & Law 291-331 (2011), with Nathaniel Carie, Courtney C. DeWitt, and Eric Lesh. Publisher's copy available for download. Authors' version as accepted for publication.
Meaning, Logic, and the Systematization of Law: Kelsen, Wittgenstein and Information Architecture, in proceedings of the Workshop on Fundamental Concepts and the Systematization of Law, part of the 24th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2011), held in Vienna, Austria, on 14-16 December 2011. Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Designing Factfinding for Cross-Border Healthcare, 3 Opinio Juris in Comparatione Paper n. 1, pp. 1-40 (2009). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Plausibility Schemas: Templates for Legal Factfinding, in the Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL 2011), June 8-12, 2009, pp. 214-15 (ACM: New York, 2009). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Emergent Reasoning Structures in Law, chapter in Handbook of Research on Agent-Based Societies: Social and Cultural Interactions (Goran Trajkovski and Samuel G. Collins, Editors; Information Science Reference, 2009). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
A Default-Logic Model of Factfinding for United States Regulation of Food Safety, chapter in Uncertain Risks Regulated (Ellen Vos and Michelle Everson, Editors; Routledge-Cavendish Publishing, 2008).
Book Review of Alberto Alemanno, Trade in Food: Regulatory and Judicial Approaches in the EC and the WTO (2007), 45 Common Market Law Review 274 (2008).
Discovering the Logic of Legal Reasoning, Idea essay in 35 Hofstra Law Review 1687 (2007). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Visualizing the Dynamics around the Rule/Evidence Interface in Legal Reasoning, 6 Law, Probability and Risk 5-22 (2007). Prepublication copy available for download in .pdf format.
A Default-Logic Paradigm for Legal Fact-Finding, 47 Jurimetrics 193 (2007). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Transforming Science into Law: Transparency and Default Reasoning in International Trade Disputes, chapter in Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Research (Wendy Wagner and Rena Steinzor, Editors; Cambridge University Press 2006).
A Default-Logic Framework for Legal Reasoning in Multiagent Systems, peer-reviewed paper available in Technical Report FS-06-05 for the 2006 Fall Symposium of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Restoring the Individual Plaintiff to Tort Law by Rejecting ‘Junk Logic’ about Specific Causation, 56 Alabama Law Review 381 (2004).
Epistemic and Non-epistemic Aspects of the Factfinding Process in Law, American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Law and Philosophy 132 (Volume 3:1, Fall 2003); reprinted in 5 Philosophy, Science, and Law (2005), www.psljournal.com/archives/all/walkerpaper.cfm.
The Myth of Science as a ‘Neutral Arbiter’ for Triggering Precautions, 26 Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 197 (2003).
Uncertainties in Tort Liability for Uncertainty, 1 Law, Probability and Risk 175 (2002) (Book Review of Porat & Stein, Tort Liability under Uncertainty).
Consistent Levels of Protection in International Trade Disputes: Using Risk Perception Research to Justify Different Levels of Acceptable Risk, 31 Environmental Law Reporter 11317 (2001). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
A Functional Analysis of Food Safety Regulation in the United States, 6 Risk Decision and Policy 131 (2001).
Theories of Uncertainty: Explaining the Possible Sources of Error in Inferences, 22 Cardozo Law Review 1523 (2001); reprinted in The Dynamics of Judicial Proof: Computation, Logic, and Common Sense, Marilyn MacCrimmon & Peter Tillers, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2002).
Complexity, Transparency, and the Warranted Use of Formal Systems in Legal Factfinding, 9 Artificial Intelligence and Law 189 (2001) (Special Volume on “Formal Approaches to Legal Evidence”).
Some Dangers of Taking Precautions without Adopting the Precautionary Principle: A Critique of Food Safety Regulation in the United States, 31 Environmental Law Reporter 10040 (2001). Copy of full text available for download in .pdf format.
Defining and Identifying ‘Stigma,’ in Risk, Media and Stigma, James Flynn, Paul Slovic & Howard Kunreuther, eds. (2001), Chapter 22.
The Cost of Reducing Scientific Uncertainty Concerning Hormesis: A Commentary, 8 BELLE Newsletter 37 (Issue 3, March 2000); reprinted in 20 Human and Experimental Toxicology 159 (2001).
Language, Meaning, and Warrant: An Essay on the Use of Bayesian Probability Systems in Legal Factfinding, 39 Jurimetrics: The Journal of Law, Science, and Technology 391 (Summer 1999).
Keeping the WTO from Becoming the ‘World Trans-science Organization’: Scientific Uncertainty, Science Policy, and Factfinding in the Growth Hormones Dispute, 31 Cornell International Law Journal 251 (1998).
Risk Regulation and the ‘Faces’ of Uncertainty, 9 Risk: Health, Safety & Environment 27 (1998).
Preponderance, Probability and Warranted Factfinding, 62 Brooklyn Law Review 1075 (1996).
Risk Characterization and the Weight of Evidence: Adapting Gatekeeping Concepts from the Courts, 16 Risk Analysis: An International Journal 793 (1996).
Federalism and Compensation for Accidental Injuries, in Government Structures in the U.S.A. and the Sovereign States of the Former U.S.S.R.: Power Allocation among Central, Regional and Local Governments (James E. Hickey, Jr. & Alexej Ugrinsky, eds., 1996).
Shared Management of Reasonable Risk: Implications for Environmental Assessment and Monitoring, 11 Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law 1 (1995-1996).
Direct Inference, Probability, and a Conceptual Gulf in Risk Communication, 15 Risk Analysis: An International Journal 603 (1995).
Refining the Precautionary Principle in International Environmental Law, with James E. Hickey, Jr., 14 Virginia Environmental Law Journal 423 (1995).
Direct Inference in the Lost Chance Cases: Factfinding Constraints Under Minimal Fairness to Parties, 23 Hofstra Law Review 247 (1994).
Clarifying Scientific Uncertainties for Decision Makers, in The Environment: Global Problems, Local Solutions (James E. Hickey, Jr. & Linda A. Longmire, eds., 1994).
Judicial Control of Evidence of Cancer Causation: A Comparative Analysis of the Divergent Motion Practices in New Jersey and New York, with Christine Beggs Hickey and Erica M. Bernhardt, 57 Albany Law Review 441 (1993).
The Concept of Baseline Risk in Tort Litigation, 80 Kentucky Law Journal 631 (1992); noted in the ‘Worth Reading’ column, The National Law Journal, Oct. 26, 1992, at 38.
The Siren Songs of Science: Toward a Taxonomy of Scientific Uncertainty for Decisionmakers, 23 Connecticut Law Review 567 (1991).
Evidentiary Difficulties With Quantitative Risk Assessments, 14 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 469 (1989).
Keeping a Risk Assessment Out of Evidence, 3 Toxics Law Reporter 1501 (1989).
Quantitative Risk Assessments as Evidence in Civil Litigation, 8 Risk Analysis 605 (1988).
Product Risk Reduction in the Chemical Industry, with Leonard A. Miller & Robert S. Taylor (1985).
Carcinogens in Air: A Crisis in Regulation, with Leonard A. Miller and Lydia N. Wegman, 3 Environmental Forum, February 1985, at 44.
Punitive Damages and Management of Environmental Information, 5 Environmental Analyst, September 1984, at 8.
Procedural Difficulties in Current Interstate Air Pollution Proceedings, with Leonard A. Miller, Environmental Regulation Analyst, December 1981, at 11.
The Timeliness Threat to Intervention of Right, 89 Yale Law Journal 586 (1980).
Scientific Medicine, Technology and the Concept of Health, with Dr. Charles Dougherty, 5 Ethics in Science & Medicine 75 (1978).
Presumptive Personhood, 45 Linacre Quarterly 179 (1978).
Criteria for Object Perception, 7 Journal of Cybernetics 169 (1977).
“Short Course in Medical Ethics,” with Dr. Charles Dougherty (1977). Five-part videotape series (color), Biomedical Communications Center, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska.